AcqKnowledge offers two methods for computing phasic skin conductance from tonic. Both methods are designed to isolate relatively quick changes in the signal. In one method, the raw skin conductance data are passed through a high pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 0.05 Hz. In the other method, the data are passed through a median value smoothing filter, and then that filtered waveform is subtracted from the original. Since median value smoothing discards areas of rapid change, subtracting this smoothed waveform leaves behind only those sections where the data are changing rapidly.
The median value smoothing filter is computationally intensive. Processing time required by this filter depends on the smoothing factor. Lower values of this factor entail more computations and thus take longer to complete. When the value is too small, the software may seem to hang indefinitely. Therefore, from a computational standpoint, it is better to use a relatively large smoothing factor if this method is to be used for deriving phasic skin conductance. In some older versions of AcqKnowledge, the default smoothing factor was 0.25 seconds. A factor of four seconds or eight seconds is probably more appropriate and will produce results much more quickly.
The alternative method, high pass filtering the data, is generally much faster than median value smoothing. In versions of AcqKnowledge earlier than 4.2, however, this method introduced an artifact that makes the first 30 seconds or so of the data unusable. To apply the same filter without the artifact in AcqKnowledge 4.0 or 4.1, the phasic skin conductance can be derived this way:
Using the I-beam tool or the selection palette, move the cursor to the first data point.
Set a measurement box to “Value” for the raw skin conductance data.
Choose Transform > Waveform Math… and set
Source 1 as the raw skin conducance data
Operand as “-“
Source 2 as “K” (constant), and then in the edit box for K, enter the number obtained from the Value measurement of step 2 above
Destination as “New”
Transform entire wave (check the box to enable)
Select the new waveform created by step 4.
Choose Transform > Digital Filters > IIR > High Pass… and set
Frequency cutoff to “Fixed at” “0.05” Hz
Q “0.707” (the default value)
Filter entire waveform (check the box to enable)
Edit the channel label on the left to indicate that the channel contains “Phasic EDA.”
In AcqKnowledge version 4.2 and above, these steps are built into the “Derive Phasic EDA from Tonic” analysis routine when the high pass filter option is selected. Hence in these versions, the 0.05 Hz filter does not introduce an artifact.
Options for deriving phasic skin conductance—which of the two methods to use, and what smoothing factor (Baseline estimation window) to use in the case that “Smoothing Baseline Removal” is chosen—are accessible via “Analysis > Electrodermal Activity > Preferences…”
fNIRS is growing in popularity as a tool for studying human cognition including workload, memory, learning, attention and more. It is simpler than ever to incorporate into your experiments.
You will learn how to: – Operate fNIRS equipment – Record high quality data – Perform an experiment – Analyze data – Synchronize with other physiological signals – Synchronize with stimulus presentation
BIOPAC provides software and hardware that allows research teams to record and analyze numerous body signals for physiological experimentation. Here are a few notable studies using BIOPAC equipment for ECG, EDA, and Respiration data. What Keeps Students More Engaged? The question has been brought to the forefront during COVID, what variations of online learning keep students more engaged? […]
BIOPAC’s comprehensive Introductory ECG Guide addresses fundamental to advanced concerns to optimize electrocardiography data recording and analysis. Topics include: ECG Complex; Electrical and Mechanical Sequence of a Heartbeat; Systole and Diastole; Configurations for Lead I, Lead II, Lead III, 6-lead ECG, 12-lead ECG, precordial leads; Ventricular Late Potentials (VLPs); ECG Measurement Tools; Automated Analysis Routines for extracting, […]