Cardiac Output can be determined, noninvasively, by employing electrical bio-impedance measurement techniques. Electrical bio-impedance is simply the characteristic impedance of a volume of tissue and fluid. In the case of Cardiac Output measures, the relevant tissue includes the heart and the immediate surrounding volume of the thorax. The relevant fluid is blood.
The EBI100C is designed to record the parameters associated with CO measurements. The EBI100C incorporates a precision high-frequency current source, which injects a very small (100 µA rms or 400 µA rms) current through the measurement tissue volume defined by the placement of a set of current source electrodes. A separate set of monitoring electrodes then measures the voltage developed across the tissue volume. Because the current is constant, the voltage measured is proportional to the characteristics of the biological impedance of the tissue volume.
The EBI100C measures both impedance magnitude and dZ/dt simultaneously. The EBI100C is capable of recording impedances at four different operational frequencies, from 12.5 kHz to 100 kHz. Usually, CO measurements are performed at a measurement frequency of either 50 kHz or 100 kHz.
Learn a technique—Trans-radial Electrical Bioimpedance Velocimetry (TREV)—that is more user-friendly and less invasive than the transthoracic method. TREV measures blood movement in the radial and ulnar arteries of the forearm via bioimpedance.
– Presentation and discussion of TREV
– Derived Indices Relevant to TREV
– Hardware setup
– Participant setup
– Recognizing good quality and bad quality data
– Demonstration with the grip anticipation test
– Review of results from other tests
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