The ability to noninvasively assess voluntary muscle effort has wide application in physiologic studies, sports and rehabilitation medicine, as well as movement science. Traditionally, surface electromyography (sEMG) has been used for such assessments, but sEMG has several significant limitations arising from the fact that an estimate of muscle mechanical effort is being obtained from an electrical potential measurement made at the skin surface. As a result, it can be difficult to compare recordings from different muscles on the same person, on the same muscle over a period of days or weeks, or between the same muscle on different individuals. In addition, muscle fatigue studies are difficult as EMG activity tends to increase with increasing fiber recruitment, even though muscle effort is decreasing.
To overcome the limitations associated with using sEMG recordings to evaluate muscle effort, an increasing number of investigators have come to rely upon vibromyography (VMG), or the recording of muscle fiber vibrations, to estimate muscle effort levels. The development of microelectromechanical (MEMS) accelerometers has contributed greatly to this transition as extremely sensitive, very low noise sensors are now available at reasonable cost.
Video is a compelling addition to physiology experiments. Researchers need to understand and observe the behavior of the participant, identify problems during the experiment and get a general sense of behavior and how that behavior relates to the data. If data looks wrong or bad, video can help researchers figure out why.
Recent studies in Psychophysiology, EMG, ECG and PPG measurement utilizing BIOPAC software and hardware: Fight or Flight (Reflex Response Time) “Fight or flight” is a physiological response that occurs due to a perceived threat to survival. It can physiologically be observed through an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen availability, and other mechanisms. In […]
HRV, EMG, and EEG studies using BIOPAC hardware and software include: DON’T STRESS Humans encounter various stressful situations everyday at work, home, and school. Such stress when experienced at high degrees and/or for a long duration of time could lead to cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions, and psychological disorders. This study examined the validity of a novel physiological measurement […]