The ability to noninvasively assess voluntary muscle effort has wide application in physiologic studies, sports and rehabilitation medicine, as well as movement science. Traditionally, surface electromyography (sEMG) has been used for such assessments, but sEMG has several significant limitations arising from the fact that an estimate of muscle mechanical effort is being obtained from an electrical potential measurement made at the skin surface. As a result, it can be difficult to compare recordings from different muscles on the same person, on the same muscle over a period of days or weeks, or between the same muscle on different individuals. In addition, muscle fatigue studies are difficult as EMG activity tends to increase with increasing fiber recruitment, even though muscle effort is decreasing.
To overcome the limitations associated with using sEMG recordings to evaluate muscle effort, an increasing number of investigators have come to rely upon vibromyography (VMG), or the recording of muscle fiber vibrations, to estimate muscle effort levels. The development of microelectromechanical (MEMS) accelerometers has contributed greatly to this transition as extremely sensitive, very low noise sensors are now available at reasonable cost.
fNIR Imaging Systems are stand-alone functional brain imaging solutions for continuous NIR spectroscopy (NIRS). They provide an in-lab cognitive function assessment and eliminate a great many of the drawbacks of a functional MRI. fNIR optical imaging technology measures neural activity and hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. Subjects wear an fNIR sensor (IR light sources […]
BIOPAC provides software and hardware that allow for research teams to record and analyze respiration activity in physiological experimentation. Here are a few notable studies covering HRV, EMG, and EEG measurement. HRV (Jing Wei, Hong Luo, Si J. Wu, Paul P. Zheng, Genyue Fu, and Kang Lee) Humans encounter various stressful situations everyday at work, home, and school. Such stress when experienced at high degrees and/or […]
Alan Macy Answers Proust Questionnaire BIOPAC co-founder and R&D Director, Alan Macy, was interviewed recently by Roger Durling for the Santa Barbara Independent. The article, “The S.B. Questionnaire: Alan Macy,” provided a background excerpt of the Santa Barbara entrepreneurs’ past as well as his answers to the Proust Questionnaire. The biomedical technology developed at BIOPAC reflects an ambitious […]